Cultural Resources Management

The Army is charged with protecting the history and prehistory of all military posts, including Fort Campbell. Fort Campbell established an historic preservation program to effectively manage cultural resources on the base.  Cultural resources are prehistoric and historic sites, structures, districts, artifacts, or any other physical evidence of human activity considered important to a culture, subculture, or community for traditional, religious, scientific, or any other reason. 

​ Cultural resources can be grouped into three main categories
  • archaeological resources, including both prehistoric and historical occupations
  • architectural resources - historic buildings and structures
  • properties of religious or cultural significance to Native Americans, including sacred sites or Traditional Cultural Properties (TCPs)

Historic properties, as defined by the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), are a special group of cultural resources listed on, or eligible for, inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP).

Cultural resources at Fort Campbell include:
  • 4 Historic Buildings/Structures
  • 1,699 Archaeological Sites – 812 Prehistoric – 440 Historic – 447 Both
  • 131 Cemeteries
  • 1 Historic District (Clarksville Base)
  • No Known Sacred Sites

The Cultural Resources Office at Fort Campbell was established to protect these sites from intentional damage and looting and from accidental damage that might occur from training activities. Protection and management of cultural resources is mandated by a suite of statutes, regulations, and Executive Orders (EO). These mandates are carried out at the agency level by directives, policy statements, and procedures. image001.jpg Additionally, standards and guidelines for federal cultural resource management (CRM) are maintained by the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP), National Park Service (NPS) and, at the state level, the various State Historic Preservation Offices (SHPOs). The primary legal and procedural framework for cultural resources management is presented below.

National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (NHPA, 16 USC 470 et seq.). The NHPA sets forth Government policy and procedures regarding historic properties, including districts, sites, buildings, structures and objects included in, or Eligible for inclusion in, the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). Section 106 of NHPA requires that federal agencies consider the effects of their actions on such properties, following regulations issued by the ACHP; 36 CFR 800. Section 106 and Section 110 of the NHPA guide many of the CRM requirements for the installation’s environmental stakeholders and other parties.

Click Here for NHPA Text.

Section 106 relates to the protection of historic properties with regard to federal undertakings, specifically a “project, activity, or program funded in whole or in part under the direct or indirect jurisdiction of a federal agency; and Section 110 requires the establishment of an agency program for preservation of historic properties, and guides broader preservation and protection of historic properties outside of specific actions.

Section 106 coordination with SHPOs, federally-recognized Native American Tribes, consulting parties, and members of the interested public must be completed before Fort Campbell can legally approve the expenditure of federal monies on proposed undertakings. In an effort to simplify Section 106 reviews, Fort Campbell has executed programmatic agreement (PA) documents with the Kentucky-Tennessee SHPOs and the ACHP. These agreement documents serve to streamline Fort Campbell’s Section 106 responsibilities, while providing protection for historic properties within the installation’s regulatory jurisdiction as required by the NHPA. Section 106 process of the NHPA is implemented through regulations, 36 CFR 800, Protection of Historic Properties.

Click Here for Section 106 Regulations.

Section 106 coordination with SHPOs, federally-recognized Native American Tribes, consulting parties, and members of the interested public must be completed before Fort Campbell can legally approve the expenditure of federal monies on proposed undertakings. In an effort to simplify Section 106 reviews, Fort Campbell has executed programmatic agreement (PA) documents with the Kentucky-Tennessee SHPOs and the ACHP. These agreement documents serve to streamline Fort Campbell’s Section 106 responsibilities, while providing protection for historic properties within the installation’s regulatory jurisdiction as required by the NHPA. Section 106 process of the NHPA is implemented through regulations, 36 CFR 800, Protection of Historic Properties.

Click here for NPS Section110 Website.

Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979 (ARPA, 16 USC 470aa-470mm).  ARPA prohibits the excavation of archaeological resources (anything of archaeological interest) on federal or Indian lands, without a permit from the land manager. It also sets penalties (fines and/or jail time) for violators.  It is ILLEGAL to remove, excavate, damage, or alter archaeological sites on federal lands • Violations are punishable by jail time and fines.

Click Here for ARPA Section 16 Website.

Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act of 1990 (NAGPRA, 25 USC 3001). NAGPRAimage002.jpg requires federal agencies and federally assisted museums to return “Native American cultural items” to the federally recognized Indian Tribes or Native Hawaiian groups with which they are associated.

Click Here for NAGPRA Text.

The American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978 (AIRFA, 42 USC 1996 and 1996a). This Act sets out a policy of the United States to protect and preserve the inherent right of Native Americans to believe, express, and exercise the traditional religions of the American Indian, Eskimo, Aleut, and Native Hawaiians, including but not limited to access to sites, use and possession of sacred objects, and the freedom to worship through ceremonial and traditional rites. It directs federal agencies to evaluate their policies and procedures in consultation with native traditional religious leaders in order to determine appropriate changes necessary to protect and preserve Native American religious cultural rights and practices.

Click Here for AIFRA Section 42 Text.

Army Regulation (AR) 200-1. The Army’s historic preservation program was established in accordance with Chapter 6 of Army Regulation (AR) 200-1, Environmental Protection and Enhancement. AR 200-1 guides management of Army cultural resources (which includes the subset of historic properties), defined more broadly by Army and Department of Defense policy as:

  • Historic properties, as defined in the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA)
  • Cultural Items, as defined in the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA)
  • Archeological resources, as defined in the Archeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA)
  • Sacred sites, as defined in Executive Order (EO) 13007
  • Archeological collections, as defined in 36 Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) Part 79, Curation of Federally-Owned and Administered Archaeological Collections.

AR 200-1 also defines responsibilities for the management of cultural resources at the installation level. These elements include the role of the Garrison Commander (GC), the responsibilities of the Cultural Resources Manager, and the requirement from Department of Defense Instruction (DODI) 4715.16 to complete an Integrated Cultural Resources Management Plan (ICRMP).

The Cultural Resources Management Program at the US Army Environmental Command (USAEC) assists installations like Fort Campbell in meeting their cultural resources compliance needs by developing programmatic solutions and technical documents, and providing technical support to installations. Together, these elements create a framework for managing cultural resources at the installation level and support the Army in addressing its need to have a comprehensive historic preservation program.

The effective management of cultural resources at Fort Campbell follows from federal laws, Army regulations, and from Federal Standards and Guidelines.  The USAEC maintains and updates a list of these legal requirements at their website (Click Here for AEC Cultural Resources Website. Fort Campbell incorporates these legislative and regulatory authorities in their update of the ICRMP every 5 years. Click here for Fort Campbell ICRMP.

In accordance with Section 106 of the NHPA, Fort Campbell negotiates agreements with the Kentucky and Tennessee State Historic Preservation Offices (SHPO) for the management of cultural resources in response to specific projects or actions (undertakings) proposed at the base.  Agreement documents, such as Memoranda of Agreement (MOA) and Programmatic Agreements (PA), are the cornerstone by which federal agencies document their resolution of adverse effects on historic properties. PAs have been used often by Department of Defense and Department of the Army to manage broad classes of historic properties, especially buildings and structures. Such a programmatic approach can minimize mitigation costs, streamline the Section 106 consultation process, and enhance the protection of resources covered under those agreements. Fort Campbell currently has three active Programmatic Agreements (PA):

PA Among the United States Army, the SHPO of Kentucky and the SHPO of Tennessee Regarding the Operation, Maintenance, and Development of the Fort Campbell Army Installation at Fort Campbell, Kentucky (effective 15 January 2009 through 31 December 2013) (The OPs PA). The OPs PA identifies actions related to the operation, maintenance and development of Fort Campbell that are exempt from review under Section 106. Planned actions at properties considered Eligible for listing in the NRHP may proceed with certification by the CRPM, provided that the planned work stays entirely within the defined limitations.  Annual reports of all Army projects and activities carried out on Fort Campbell in both Kentucky and Tennessee are prepared in accordance with the PA and posted on the website,

Kentucky - Click Here for the Kentucky Annual Report.

Tennessee – Click here for the Tennessee Annual Report.image003.jpg

PA Between Fort Campbell and the Tennessee SHPO Regarding Development, Construction, and Operations at Clarksville Base Historic District (effective 15 January 2009 through 15 January 2014) (the OCB PA). The OCB PA supports the use of areas located within the CBHD for the development of new buildings, structures and facilities in support of the Fort Campbell Installation Master Plan and its supported facility initiatives. This PA identifies a number of actions that will have no effect on historic properties. The OCB PA also notes that projects involving properties considered Eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places may proceed with certification by the CRPM provided that the planned work stays entirely within defined limitations.  Annual reports documenting all projects and activities carried out at Clarksville Base Historic District Annual reports documenting all projects and activities carried out at Clarksville Base Historic District are prepared in accordance with the PA and posted on the website.

Click Here for the Fort Campbell Programmatic Agreement.

PA Among Fort Campbell, Kentucky, Kentucky SHPO, Tennessee SHPO and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation for the Privatization of Family Housing at Fort Campbell, Kentucky (effective 29 May 2003 through 29 May 2053 and known as the RCI PA). The RCI PA addresses roles, responsibilities and procedures for complying with Section 106 of NHPA between Fort Campbell, Campbell Crossing, Limited Liability Corporation (LLC), and Campbell Crossing, LLC. The RCI PA identifies historic properties affected by the transfer of ownership and transfer of continued maintenance, operation, and development responsibilities in 2003 and defines standard actions where case-by-case Section 106 consultation is not necessary. The RCI PA also defines streamlined procedures that the parties will follow to comply with Section 106.

CRM Law Primer

Application for Military Personnel at Fort Campbell:

 

·         Do not dig into any archaeological sites, they are not renewable resources.

·         Do not remove artifacts.  It destroys sites and is against the law.

·         Do not step in grave depressions (it is disrespectful and you could fall in!)

·         Do not use gravestone/cemeteries as firing points.

·         If you find artifacts or a site, please notify the Cultural Resources Office.  Provide location (e.g., GPS coordinates) and pictures, if possible.

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Application for other departments planning projects at Fort Campbell:

 

·         There are cultural resources, including archaeological sites, at Fort Campbell and by law, it is our responsibility to help protect them.

·         Contact Range & ITAM for dig permits.

·         Use the Environmental Review Process.

·         Submitting information on projects through the Environmental Review Process, including the location and type of work being performed, helps ensure that projects do not damage or endanger cultural resources.

·         Information about the locations of archaeological sites is restricted to protect them from looting and vandalism but the Cultural Resources Office can provide information about where it is safe to work.